Can being “in the zone” more often turn our good-enough into above-average work?
BY STEPHANIE VOZZA 5 MINUTE READ
If you want to do more, learn more, and gain more, you might want to think like surfer.
Surfing is a 1,000-year-old sport, and 20 years ago the biggest wave ever ridden was 25 feet. Today surfers push into waves 100 feet tall. Or consider snowboarding: In 1992, the biggest gap ever cleared was 40 feet; today that jump is 230 feet.
What’s behind the insane progress in adventure sports? Flow, says Steven Kotler, author of The Rise of Superman: Decoding the Science of Ultimate Human Performance.'
“Flow is an optimal state of consciousness, when you feel and perform your best,” he says. “It’s the moment of total absorption. Time speeds up or slows down like a freeze-frame effect. Mental and physical ability go through roof, and the brain takes in more information per second, processing it more deeply.”
Sometimes called “being in the zone,” flow isn’t just an experience for record-breaking athletes. “It’s ubiquitous,” says Kotler. “Anybody anywhere can apply the triggers for any task. And the amount of time someone spends in flow has a massive and powerful correlation to life satisfaction.”
Flow is an optimal state of consciousness . . . the brain takes in more information per second and processes it more deeply.
Kotler experienced the power of flow 17 years ago when he contracted Lyme disease and spent the better portion of three years in bed. “It was like having the worst flu crossed with paranoid schizophrenia,” he says. “I was functional about an hour a day. I couldn’t work. I was hallucinating. And I was going to kill myself because I felt like a burden.”
In the middle of what Kotler calls a “dark mess,” a friend showed up his door and demanded he go surfing with her. “Just to get her to shut up, I said, ‘Fuck it; help me to the car,’” he says. After about 30 seconds in the water, Kotler’s muscle memory kicked in, his senses heightened and he felt as if he had entered another dimension. He rode his first wave in years and then did it four more times. Out of the water, his life went back to its disabled state, so Kotler continued his trips to the beach, and over the course of six months went from 10% functionality to 80%.
“All I could think was, ‘What the hell is going on?’” he says. “More alarming to me was the fact that I’m trained as a science writer. I was having a quasi-mystical experience. I was pretty sure the [Lyme] disease had gone to my brain and that I was going to die at any moment.”
THE SCIENCE BEHIND FLOW
So, he embarked on quest to figure out what was happening and discovered 150 years of research on flow. “When a person is in a state of flow, all five potent neurochemicals massively amplify the immune system,” says Kotler.
“Stress-causing hormones are flushed out of body in flow, and the autoimmune and nervous systems go haywire. Flow brought me from seriously subpar back up to normal, and it can bring normal people to Superman.”
Flow is the most desirable state on earth, but it’s also the most elusive. The latest Gallup poll found that 71% of American workers are disengaged. “The average business person spends less than 5% of their day in flow. If you could increase that to 15%, overall workplace productivity would double,” says Kotler.
Adventure sports athletes are better at hacking the state of flow than anyone else in history, says Kotler, who focuses on this group in his book, identifying 17 flow triggers–three environmental, three internal, one creative, and 10 social. Athletes rely most on environmental triggers, says Kotler, and the same principles can be applied to business.
Here’s how you can hack into your state of flow to create incredible results:
TAKE MORE SOCIAL RISKS.
Flow follows focus, and taking risks drives focus into the now. For adventure athletes, risk can be serious injury or even death, but in the workplace it doesn’t have to be as extreme.
“The brain can’t tell the difference between physical consequences and emotional risk,” says Kotler. “Taking social risks is the same as physical risks.” Speak up at meetings, share creative ideas, approach a stranger or tell the truth when it feels awkward.
“In Silicon Valley, the idea is to fail fast or fail forward,” he says. “If you’re not giving employees space to fail, you’re not giving them space to risk. Move fast and break things. Engage in rapid experimentation. High consequences will drive flow and you get further faster.”
UP THE AMOUNT OF NOVELTY AND COMPLEXITY IN YOUR WORK ENVIRONMENT
The atmosphere around you can trigger flow, and Kotler says novelty, unpredictability, and complexity will get you there. “In surfing, no two waves are same,” he says.
In business, the idea is to get out of habits and routines. “Automatic pilot is efficient and routines save the brain energy, but it doesn’t put you into flow,” says Kotler. Instead, shake things up. Vary your route. Even brush your teeth with the wrong hand. Against-the-grain tricks will demand focus, says Kotler.
Pixar is a great example of a rich environment, says Kotler. Steve Jobs designed an atrium in the center of its offices, positioning the meeting rooms, cafeteria, mailboxes, and bathrooms around it.
“Steve Jobs artificially created the environmental conditions that massively upped the amount of novelty, unpredictability, and complexity in the environment because people across departments and disciplines started running into each other and having conversations,” says Kotler. “As a result, flow, innovation, and creativity went up.”
USE ALL OF YOUR SENSES.
The final external flow trigger happens when you pay attention with all sensory streams, listening, looking, smelling, tasting, and touching. Action and adventure sports demand deep embodiment, says Kotler. A kayaker, for example, pays attention to the environment with his whole body, becoming literally part of the flow of the world, says Kotler.
Montessori education is another example, promoting learning through doing and engaging multiple sensory streams. You can emulate its effect in the business world through whole body experiences and mindfulness. Kotler says meditation, balance, and agility training, and even video games will get you there.
“Flow shows up when we’re stretching, pushing our skills to the max,” says Kotler. “It’s an uncomfortable place to be in the moment, but the payoff is a deeper life satisfaction.”
Spieth was still a few days short of his twenty fourth birthday, already had two majors under his belt, had spent twenty six weeks as the world’s No.1 and was well known for his ability to lead from the front and close out tournaments. Things certainly didn’t start out as anyone might have expected. After the first four holes of the final round, Spieth had dropped three shots and was now back at -8, tied for the lead with Kuchar.
After twelve holes the situation was still the same, both tied for the lead of the oldest and most coveted of the four major championships. All those who follow golf know what happened next. Spieth’s drive at the 13th went an incredible and almost unbelievable120 yards right, burying itself at the base of one of Royal Birkdale’s largest dunes. This, my friends, is the shot that won the Open.
This is probably going to require a bit of explaining! My theory is based on the latest research into the peak performing zone or flow. Flow is the term first coined by Hungarian psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi in his book ‘Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience’ written in 1990. Flow is an extremely potent response to external events and requires an extraordinary set of signals. It is an altered state of awareness in which performance is powerfully enhanced.
There are many examples of the flow state in professional golf but my favourite is when Billy Mayfair shot 27 on the back nine in the final round of the Buick Open in 2001. He was quoted as saying that the holes looked the size of bathtubs, it felt like another part of him had taken over and all he had to do was to keep out of his way!
As a golfer myself with a handicap of 7, I vividly remember my own experience of flow when I shot my first sub seventy round in a weekly club competition. It lasted the whole round and I couldn’t stop smiling!
The flow state or zone is seen as something that just happens; that it can’t be planned. People just find themselves in it. But this is all changing... fast!
Since 1990 there has been a significant amount of research done on the flow state covering many aspects of peak performance in various sports, activities and industry/commerce, however for this article I just want to touch on the stages of flow and some triggers to flow.
Firstly, the flow state consists of four stages.
Secondly, the triggers to flow primarily consist of external and internal triggers.
External triggers include:-
So my belief is that Spieth’s drive at the 13th was the culmination of his struggle phase. Most players would have ended up with at least a double and their struggle would have continued. Kuchar would have been two ahead and he would have ended up holding the claret jug aloft on the eighteenth green! Spieth though, found a way to make a shift either consciously or unconsciously, paving the way to accessing his flow state. And as we all know, what a flow state it was! He took a one shot penalty and dropped on the practice range, three iron short right, chip to eight feet and holed the putt for a bogey.
The next four holes will go down in Open history. 14th par three, 6 iron from 195yds to 4ft, birdie. 15th par five, driver, three wood from 256yds to 55ft and one putt, eagle. 16th par four, driver, eight iron from 153yds to 25ft, one putt, birdie. 17th par five, driver, laid up with eight iron, chip to 8ft and one putt, birdie.
That, my friends, is one of the finest examples of the peak performing state in golf you are ever likely to see. All triggered by the worst drive that Jordan Spieth has probably ever hit in his professional career.
Major institutions are currently conducting significant research into the flow state focusing on both sport and business. We are beginning to understand that flow is a product of radical neurochemical, neuroelectrical and neuroanatomical function. It is being demonstrated that this peak performance state does not have to be something that is accessed purely by chance but that now it can be trained for. And that is an exciting prospect for anyone who wants to maximise his or her potential.
Flow Peak Performance Academy runs individual and group peak performance flow programs for sports and business organisations! To find out more how accessing your peak performing flow state will help you, please contact Nick Lees at firstname.lastname@example.org or +44 (0)7411 944284.
Written by Brian Keogh.
Pádraig Harrington has had three great father figures in his career — his father, Paddy, his swing coach, Bob Torrance, and Dr Bob Rotella.
The first two meant everything in his formation as a person and a swinger of a club, but mental coach Rotella’s influence has arguably been as crucial to his success as a player.
For Harrington, there is no greater expression of what Rotella’s influence meant to him than the Open at Carnoustie in 2007, where he double bogeyed the 72nd hole yet still had the mental strength to pick himself up and walk out for the play-off feeling invincible.
Their fascinating story began in 1997, when the Dubliner hooked up with the University of Virginia Director of sports psychology after reading his book, ‘Golf is Not a Game of Perfect’ and spent two days in his basement. Talking.
Carnoustie was the culmination of over a decade of talking and chatting and while their relationship has developed from a professional, doctor-client dynamic and morphed into a close friendship, those early days remain key. While Rotella knew the inner workings of Harrington’s mind better than almost anyone else, he was still amazed by his pupil’s mental strength in his darkest hour that Sunday on the North Sea coast of Scotland. After hitting two balls into the Barry Burn at the 72nd hole, Harrington produced one of the great recovery pitch and putts of all time to make the play-off with Sergio Garcia.
As Harrington said: “Bob once wrote he’d rather meet somebody with great dreams rather than a great person with no dreams. It’s really about what you believe you can achieve. And that’s what limits you.” Speaking just hours afterwards, Rotella felt it was going to be a good week from the word go but it was what Harrington said to him rather than what he said to Harrington that stuck in his mind.
“You could really tell it was there,” Rotella said. “We worked for a long time on self-acceptance of anything and everything that happens and no matter how hard you work, you are going to make mistakes. It is a game. And you have got to accept it. And to watch him hit two balls in the water and then stay cool and then get that ball up and down was something I will never forget. I spoke to him on the putting green as we were waiting for the play-off, I said to him: ‘If there is anything about yourself you have ever wanted to know, you just found out with that up and down. You have what it takes’.
“We don’t want to be thinking about winning on the golf course, we don’t want to think about not winning. We don’t want to get excited if you get off to a great start. We don’t want to get down if you have a bad start. I don’t want you to care what anyone else is doing. I told Padraig, ‘I want you to run out of holes like a track man running through the tape.’ If a track man starts slowing down before the tape, he loses time. I want you to just run out of holes and then find out how you did.”
Visualisation is something Harrington has perfected over the years like a Zen master. At Carnoustie, he put it into practice.
On the eve of the final round, he was already visualising himself with the trophy.
“He started talking like he was going to win, which is unusual for him,” said Rotella, who was staying at the house Harrington had rented. “And then the last thing he said was: ‘I am going to my room and I am just going to do some visualising’.
“When we went to the putting green before the play-off I just went over and told him: ‘You just found out everything you wanted to know about yourself.’
“And Padraig looked at me and he said, ‘I’m good. When you see me out in the play-off, you are going to think I’m waving but I am raising the Claret Jug to the sky.’
“Oh boy. I have never heard him say that. I said wow — he is ready. Go back and watch the tape of 17 in the play-off and you’ll see him doing a bunch of waving. He told me while he was waiting for the play-off, he is not waving, he is raising the Claret Jug to the sky.
“When he said that to me, I thought, ‘Well, yeah. He’s okay’.”